The IMPERF annotation stands for imperfect, a tense that in batunurisi denotes something that begun in the past and continues up to the present. English uses the present perfect for that, while batunurisi only uses the present perfect for completed actions.
A historian is a zkoto-wy, “history person”.
History, as in a series of past events, is simply oto.
You might wonder why I specified “as a discipline”. The chain of events that happened in the past, and the history of a person/an object, are translated as oto, which is also the verb suffix for the past perfect tense.Here is the complete list of all verb suffixes that change tense:
- o — past
- a — future
- oto — distant past, past perfect
- ata — distant future
- olo — near past
- ala — near future
- ol — past to present, imperfect
- al — present to future
- ato — future Ⅱ
- ota — present (only used when the rest of the text is not in the present)
- alo — now, present progressive
- ola — today (e.g. today’s your birthday)
- otlo — very distant past, beginning
- atla — very distant future, end
The example sentence also shows that numerals like bnok “nine” can simply be suffixed to a word just like sad (the regular plural) or ko (the collective plural). For example, three ravens can be translated as xakfrab, with xak meaning raven and frab meaning three.Here are the numerals from 0 to 14:
- bantin — 0, nothing, no, none (used to mean 15)
- gok — 1, sole
- fat — 2, pair
- rab — 3
- fuk — 4
- frax — 5
- tek — 6
- tinem — 7, left
- bandem — 8, right
- bnok — 9
- bat — 10
- bab — 11
- buk — 12
- timuk — 13
- tinok — 14
I’ll go into detail about these numerals in a later post, probably one about the word math.
By the way, I have really had nine different history teachers.